Saturday, 9 January 2016

MARVELLOUS PLAYS OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

MARVELLOUS PLAYS OF WILLIAM SHAKESPEARE

ROMEO and JULIET
What will happen when two lovers disobey their feuding families and follow their hearts?The most famous and tragic love story of all time.

Saturday, 2 January 2016

LAND AS A NATURAL RESOURCE

The land area of the earth is estimated to be about 140 million square kilometers.It occupies less than a third of the surface .Yet,it is vital for our existence.


  • The land area preserves terrestrial biodiversity and the genetic pool
  • It is the land that makes water available all the time over the whole planet by the process of water cycle.The land regulates the process.
  • The carbon cycle is also regulated by land.
  • The rain water and other sources of water running over the surface of the soil is filtered and stored underground by the land.
  • More than 4000 minerals are found  under the earth which we utilise in different ways in every day life.
  • The fossil fuels like coal,gasoline(petrol),natural gas that we use incessantly in our everyday use is stored under the land.These are basic resources.
  • Land all over the world is a dumping place for all sorts of solid as well as liquid wastes
  • Land forms the basis for human settlements whether it is on river banks, valleys,plains,mountains,ice covered continents or deserts.
  • Transport activities also depend on land for terrestrial(road/rail),marine and air ways. 
  • The top soil,just a few centimeters in thickness,supports all plant growth and is hence the life support system for all organisms,including mankind..
  • Soil is a living system and not an inert bowl f or dumping chemicals.
  • It is the land that supports the plants,trees ,and the whole living system.The world's total forest area is estimated slightly over 4 billion hectares.
  • Russian Federation,Brazil,Canada,US,,and China accounts for more than half of the total forest area(53%).
  • Land is inevitable for agriculture and food production.
  • Land is the base for thriving forests.Forests have the potential to market and non-market based determinants of poverty reduction
  • We use markets.every day buying ans selling goods to create economic value.It is done through the voluntary exchange of goods and services regulated by competition.Land is an essential item here also.
  • The land absorbs as well as releases carbon.
  • Each year,6 million hectares of agricultural land are lost due to desertification and soil degradation.This process affects250 million people all over the world.
POLAR LANDS IN PERIL
  • From about 300 years ago,the polar regions were exploited by anyone who could get there.Vast number of fish,squid,as well as other animals were killed By the 1950's these creatures had become very rare, and in 1980 mass whaling was banned.
TODAY IS 67TH REPUBLIC DAY OF INDIA
This is an occasion reminding us all that we are all Indians,whether we reside in or out of the country,whether we believe in different religions or we practise different customs our unity and integrity is our strength.We shall strive forward to make our country number one in every fields.
JAI HIND.

LAND MINING
Mining is a boon as well as a curse to humanity.
A mineral is any substance naturally present in the earth's crust and is not formed from animal or vegetable matter.The geological processes are responsible for the formation of minerals.It takes millions and sometimes billions of years.That is why we say they are non-renewable.

  • Gold,iron,copper,and aluminium are among the prominent metals extracted.Stone,sand and salt are examples non-metals.Over 100 minerals are mined like this.
  • Coal is the major mineral mined from the earth.
IMPACTS OF MINING
  • Mining leads to loss of land,livelihood,and even cultures
  • Increased health risks due to contamination of natural resources such as land and water.
  • Over the past 20 years 90 % of forest cover has been depleted due to mining
  • Small Medium sized Enterprises play a major role in manually pre-processing the waste for isolation of toxic compounds and precious metals.
  • World Health Organisation calculates that exposure to polluted soil water, and  air in 2012 resulted in an estimated 8.9 million deaths worldwide; largely in developing countries.
MINING IN INDIA
  • Eighty per cent of mining in India is for coal.
  • It is estimated that India has over 3500 mines operating legally.
  • About 10 million people have been displaced from mining areas
  • Over one million are employed in the industry..
  • Mining industry in India produces 86 different  metals and minerals.
  • Forest cover has been depleted by 90% over the past two decades due to mining.
  • Globally the land surface is continuously degrading,soil is becoming devoid of nutrients and unhealthy,and desertification is increasing.
  • Mining has become more intense and widespread and causes environmental and social problems. 
  • Jharia situated in the state  of  Jharkand is a town surrounded by coal fires.
Coalfires occur like forest fires.Lightning,forest fires, or frictional heat inside the earth's crust can trigger the spontaneous combustion of coal.Burning of coal raises atmospheric temperature, and cause land subsidence.Smoke from these fires contain gases such as oxides of carbon,nitrogen,and sulphur.


  • The fires have consumed 40 million tons of coking coal and rendered 1800 million tons out of bounds.
  • It is estimated that the cost to extinguish the fire may go up to 10 billion rupees.
  • It has become necessitated  to evacuate 3 million people of Jharia ,abandoning 100,000 houses.People are now hell on earth living in constant fear of subsidence that could cause the entire town to collapse..
  • The impact of land use/abuse causes concern in the Air Quality.Higher levels of particulate matter in cities is a major concern all over the world.
  • Dust storms have become regular between winter and spring.The amount of particulate matter in the Seol air is normally 70 micrograms of dust per cubic meter.1000 micrograms would cause breathing problems.On April 12, 2002 amount of particulate matter in the atmosphere in Seol,South Korea was 2070 micrograms per cubic meter.
  • Dust storms are typically formed in desert areas and from there they can spread to places thousands of kilometers away.
  • Land use pattern plays a key role in the environment.Overgrazing rangelands,overploughing the  cropland,overpumping the aquifers and overcutting the forests make land barren.
  • In 2009,the levels of suspended particulate matter were worse than national standards in 91 cities in India.
  • .In Delhi alone one out of every ten school children suffers from asthma.
  • Most soil pollutants are agricultural chemicals,primarily fertilizers and pesticides.
  • Dumping of waste including garbage, untreated sewage,industrial effluents,nuclear waste, and mining waste pollute the soil by leaking the danderous substances.
  • Industrial discharges and agricultural run-off containing pesticides, fertilizers, and various toxic chemicals endup in the ocean.It comes to about 70 trillion lters a year.
  • The future looks grim with respect to water,soil,and marine pollution.This calls for urgent steps.
  • Human activities have changed sediment flows into coasts and the ocean.Deltas need sediments.But they do not get enough.While coral reefs are smothered by them.
  • Land degradation and climatic changes convert fertile lands into desert soils.Fertile top soil takes centuries to form.But it can be washed or blown away in a short period of time.
  • Over cultivation,deforestation and poor irrigation practices combined with climate change are turning once fertile places into barren land.
  • Desertification has affected more than 50 million square kilometer of land.That is equal to one third of total land area of earth.
  • The impacts of desertification remain a threat to one fifth of the global population.
  • Cultivable land per person  is shrinking throughout the world, threatening food security and triggering humanitarian and economic crises.
  • The UN Convention to Combat Desertification was adopted in 1994 which came into force in 1996.More than 190 countries are parties to the Convention.
  • With increasing world population ,there will be intense pressure on land,especially in Africa and Asia.More intensive land use will be needed to feed the increasing population.More grass lands and forests will be converted to agricultural lands.
  • Underground mining has little direct effect on the environment,but it can cause long-term problems like subsidence and pollution of aquifers.
EARTH HOUR IS OBSERVED TONIGHT  FROM 08.30 TO 09.30.THIS IS TO MAKE PEOPLE AWARE OF THE SERIOUSNESS OF UNPRECEDENTED INCREASE OF CARBON IN THE ATMOSPHERE COUPLED WITH THE ENERGY POOR WHO ARE LIVING  IN THE DARK.WE HAVE TO SEEK RENEWABLE SOURCES FOR ENERGY .THIS YEARS THEME IS SOLAR WORLD.A WORLD DEPENDING OR MAKING USE OF SOLAR ENERGY THE MOST.
The world's land surface is continuously degrading.Soil is becoming unhealthy, and desertification is increasing.
Mining has become more intense and widespread and causes many environmental and social problems.

THE ARAVALLI HILLS
  • Spread across Haryana,Rajasthan,and Gujarat the hills are the lifeline of the three states.The hills  control the climate and drainage system.
  • The hills act as the watershed for the region.